Basel III implementation and SME financing: Evidence for emerging markets and developing economies!

In 2018, the Financial Stability Board launched an assessment from the results of G20 financial reforms around the financing of medium and small-size enterprises (SMEs). Based on FSB (2019), reforms like the Basel III bank regulatory framework shall boost financial stability and systemic resilience within the lengthy term. But they might be connected with a few short-run costs. The worldwide community is wondering or no such short-run costs might be suffered by SMEs – the primary job providers and conduits of shared success. Because banks provide SMEs many of their exterior finance, the primary transmission mechanism in the reforms to SME growth perform through bank credit provision to SMEs (FSB 2019).

Inside a recent paper, we examine whether Basel III capital needs, the foremost and most prominent regulating the Basel III package, had any short- to medium-term effects on SME use of finance in emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). Use of finance like a constraint reflects the firm’s overall thought of difficulties in being able to access financing and it is tracked pre and post the Basel III implementation for matching firms. This subjective way of measuring use of finance has been utilized by, for instance, Beck, Demirgüç-Kunt, and Maksimovic (2004) and Beck et al. (2006).

As with FSB (2019), we think that the primary funnel by which Basel III implementation affects SME use of financing may be the accessibility to bank credit. In principle, the Basel III package concentrates on growing the quantity and quality of capital and liquidity at banks. Banks might need to strengthen their capital and adjust their balance sheets to enhance their short-term liquidity and secure stable funding. Reducing credit to SMEs – among the riskier lending groups (asset classes) – could represent one adjustment mechanism by which a financial institution can improve its capital as a result of stricter capital regulation.

The force that the Basel III implementation affects SME financing may rely on the quality of financial inclusion of SMEs – for instance, whether firms possess a banking account, financial loan, or both – and firm risk characteristics, for example size, age, or financial performance.

Indirect effects and also the role of expectation could co-figure out how Basel III implementation ultimately affects SME financing. The indirect effects perform with the response of buyers and suppliers of SMEs along with the property (collateral) markets to Basel III implementation. Expecting Basel III implementation within their country, SMEs may change their perception about future credit availability and preemptively adjust their borrowing strategy. The transmission mechanisms portrayed in chart 1 works on the rear of the nation context, which could include the amount of economic development, discussing of credit rating information, strength of contract enforcement, and so on.

Chart 1: Conceptual framework for that aftereffect of Basel III on SME financing

Chart 1: Conceptual framework for that aftereffect of Basel III on SME financing

To correctly gauge the result of Basel III on SME financing, we employ the main difference-in-variations method inside a regression setup to manage for confounding factors and address possible sample selection issues. We use firm-level data of repeated mix-sections and panel samples covering 32 EMDEs pre and post Basel III implementation, with simply some countries uncovered towards the treatment (Basel III implementation) yet others not. To tighten the identification, we form a panel of matched firm-bank data to isolate the availability-side factors from the SME finance market.

We discover that Basel III implementation were built with a moderately negative impact on SME assess to invest in in EMDEs (figure 1, blue bars). Interestingly, SMEs which were initially around the fringes of monetary inclusion might have been affected more adversely than SMEs already using bank credit. Furthermore, the Basel III impact on SMEs that already used credit might have been minor (figure 1, estimates for that panel of firms, grey/minor bar). This finding dovetails with practitioners’ view that when SMEs come with an established relationship having a bank, they sometimes don’t face problems in renewing credit. One funnel for that negative aftereffect of Basel III could arise due to banks shifting toward more unsecured (presumably short-term) lending and, on guaranteed lending, banks requiring a lot more collateral from SMEs.

Figure 1: Estimates of Basel III’s impact on SME use of finance

Figure 1: Estimates of Basel III’s impact on SME use of finance

Source: Fisera, Horvath, and Melecky 2019.

The economical aftereffect of Basel III implementation on SME use of financing in EMDEs can vary between negative .244 and negative .593. The SME use of financing variable includes a mean of three.43 within our sample of EMDEs along with a standard deviation of just one.31. These values imply Basel III implementation could, typically, boost the use of finance constraints by about one-third from the standard deviation. Even though this effect might be less economically essential for countries for example Poultry and also the Philippines, using the best financial access within our sample (values of four.3 and 4.2 from 5), it might be more essential for countries for example Kenya and Ghana, using the worst access (2.4 of every 5). For example, Basel III implementation could, keeping other activities constant, push Peru (3.8) back to the stage of Ukraine (3.4), or it might push Thailand (3.4) back to the stage of Argentina (3.). On economic significance, we thus measure the short-run aftereffect of Basel III implementation on SME financing in EMDEs as moderately negative.

We discover that financial crises curtailed the progress in easing SME use of finance overall. In comparison, SMEs in countries with better contract enforcement saw their use of finance ease considerably more. Case study suggests little support for different Basel III effects across firm size and age, or bank capital and liquidity positions. And also the adjustment cost for SME use of finance isn’t smaller sized if countries transitioned to Basel III from Basel 2.5 instead of Basel II.

The insurance policy implications from the discussed study are threefold. One, well-capitalized and provisioned banking systems may well be more effective in improving SME use of finance and, consequently, cushion any short-term, moderately negative aftereffect of Basel III implementation on SME financing. Two, effective macroprudential management that can help avoid financial crises might help advance SME use of financing, by making certain a reliable and risk-tolerant atmosphere by which banks continue supplying credit and financially including SMEs. Three, improving contract enforcement may help avoid situations by which banks preemptively restrict lending when dealing with growing risk and uncertainty.


Beck, T., A. Demirgüç-Kunt, and V. Maksimovic. 2004. “Bank Competition and Use of Finance: Worldwide Evidence.” Journal of cash, Credit and Banking 36 (3): 627-48.

Beck, T., A. Demirgüç-Kunt, L. Laeven, and V. Maksimovic. 2006. “The Determinants of Financing Obstacles.” Journal of Worldwide Money and Finance 25 (6): 932-52.

Fisera, B., R. Horvath, M. Melecky. 2019. “Basel III Implementation and SME Financing: Evidence for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies.” Policy Research working paper no. WPS 9069. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group.

FSB (Financial Stability Board). 2019. “Evaluation from the results of financial regulatory reforms on medium and small-sized enterprise (SME) financing.” The Financial Stability Board. November 2019.

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