Bank stocks and also the reaction to financial policy initiatives
Multiplication of COVID-19 represents an unpresented global shock, using the disease itself and minimization efforts-for example social distancing measures and partial and national lockdown measures-getting a substantial effect on the economy. Within the immediate aftermath, the financial sector, particularly banks, were likely to play a huge role in absorbing the shock by offering vital credit towards the corporate sector and households. In order to facilitate this, central banks and governments around world enacted an array of policy measures to supply greater liquidity and offer the flow of credit. An essential policy real question is the possibility impact of those countercyclical lending policies around the future stability of banking systems and how much their strengthened capital positions because the global financial trouble will permit them to absorb this shock without undermining their resilience.
Inside a recent paper, we use daily stock values along with other balance sheet information for any sample of banks in 53 countries to consider an initial see this issue. Our contribution is twofold. We first measure the impact from the pandemic around the banking sector and investigate if the shock were built with a differential effect on banks versus corporates, in addition to by different bank characteristics. Second, utilizing a global database of monetary sector policy responses as well as an event study methodology, we investigate role of various policy initiatives in addressing bank stress as perceived by markets, within the aggregate, in addition to across different banks.
Our results claim that the adverse impact from the COVID-19 shock on banks was a lot more pronounced and lengthy-lasting than you are on corporates along with other non-bank banking institutions, revealing the expectation that banks will be to absorb a minimum of area of the shock towards the corporate sector (figure 1). We reveal that banks with lower pre-crisis liquidity buffers and greater contact with the oil sector experienced bigger than usual cost drops.
Figure 1. Average Stock Returns of Banks versus Firms and Non-Bank Financial Companies
Note: The figures plot the typical daily stock exchange returns of banks, firms, and non-bank banking institutions within the sample normalized to The month of january 1, 2020. The typical returns of firms in panel A are equally weighted across countries and internet of bank returns. The typical returns of banks are weighted through the contribution of every bank to total bank assets in every region. The neighborhood average bank returns will be equally weighted across regions. Exactly the same approach can be used to get the average returns of non-bank banking institutions (panel B).
We investigate greater than 400 policy bulletins between Feb and April 2020. The financial sector policy initiatives are called follows: (i) Liquidity support measures are utilized by financial government bodies to grow banks’ short-term funding in domestic and forex. (ii) Prudential measures cope with the temporary relaxation of regulatory and supervisory needs, including capital buffers. (iii) Customer assistance measures include government-backed lines of credit or liability guarantees. (iv) Financial policy measures includes policy rate cuts and quantitative easing. To research the marketplace reaction to each policy measure, we study abnormal returns to bank stocks around announcement days. Our results (summarized in figure 2) are listed below:
Bulletins of liquidity support were connected with large increases in banks’ stock values. It seems that use of central bank refinancing and initiatives that address shortages in bank funding were built with a calming impact on markets, as evidenced through the overperformance of bank stocks around these occasions. These initiatives also appear to lessen the liquidity risk premium, as banks with lower liquidity provisions experienced bigger abnormal returns following the bulletins.
Customer assistance bulletins were built with a strong an instantaneous effect on bank stock values in civilized world. Such policies, which generally include the development of government guarantees, instantly transfer risks from banks’ balance sheets towards the sovereign, frequently requiring large fiscal commitments. Relatedly, we discover that for developing countries, where there’s less room for fiscal expansion, customer support initiatives didn’t have impact on bank stocks.
In comparison, prudential measures appear to possess merely a minor effect on bank stock values, and perhaps the result seems to become negative. The outcomes claim that financial markets are prices the down-side risk in the depletion of capital buffers, along with the additional growth of riskier loans within the balance sheets of banks. It’s possible that in countries with financial vulnerabilities before the beginning of the crisis, banks were considered to stay in a worse position after using countercyclical measures.
The outcomes for financial policy bulletins tend to be more mixed. Although such bulletins weren’t connected with aggregate bank stock cost increases, they did appear to lessen the liquidity premium, confirming that policy rate cuts and quantitative easing symbolized a vital tool throughout the crisis.
Our evidence shows that the countercyclical lending role that banks all over the world are anticipated to experience has place the sector under significant pressure. Although policy measures for example liquidity support, customer assistance and financial easing moderated this adverse impact for many banks, it was not the case for those banks or perhaps in all conditions. For instance, customer assistance measures and prudential measures exacerbated the strain for banks which were already undercapitalized and/or operated in countries with little fiscal space. These vulnerabilities will have to be carefully monitored in next season because the pandemic is constantly on the hurt the world’s economies.
Figure 2. Abnormal Returns of Bank Stocks round the Announcement Window
Note: The variable plotted around the vertical axis shows the accrued abnormal returns in percentage points inside the window of 1 previous day the big event and 72 hours following the event, scaled to zero at the time prior to the announcement. Accrued abnormal returns are averaged across banks for every policy category. The horizontal axis shows days inside the event window, with “” akin to your day from the announcement. The restricted sample excludes days with overlapping bulletins of various groups within each country.
 This data set was compiled making openly available through the World Bank.